Thyroid Awareness :Excessive thyroid gland activity, which leads to higher thyroid hormone release and a faster metabolism in the tissues around the thyroid, is the hallmark of hyperthyroidism.
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Hyperthyroidism is the most frequent cause of thyrotoxicosis, a condition that is extremely rare in children. An autoimmune thyroid disorder called Graves disease is characterised by hyperthyroidism. Even though only 1% to 5% of Graves disease patients are children, the condition causes more than 95% of paediatric thyrotoxicosis cases.
Although rare, hyperthyroidism in infants can be lethal. It appears in the foetuses of moms who currently or in the past had Graves disease. Graves disease is brought on by maternal autoantibodies that overstimulate thyroid hormone synthesis by binding to thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptors in the thyroid gland.
These antibodies result in intrauterine Graves disease, which causes the baby’s thyroid to overwork and can result in foetal mortality or preterm delivery because of the baby’s excessive activity or tachycardia. Since neonates destroy the antibodies after delivery, neonatal Graves disease frequently only lasts a brief period of time.
Symptoms and signs of hypothyroidism
- jittery, with trembling hands and trouble concentrating
- quick heartbeat
- large thyroid gland
- Sleep and sweating problems
- being extremely hungry during dieting
- a wide-eyed expression, possibly with puffed-out eyes.
- nausea, vomiting, and loose stools
The most common cause of hyperthyroidism in children and teenagers is Grave’s disease, an autoimmune condition in which the body produces antibodies that stimulate the thyroid gland uncontrollably and cause it to generate too much thyroid hormone.
What causes childhood hyperthyroidism?
- Graves’ disease is the most frequent cause of hyperthyroidism in children. It is an autoimmune disease that appears when the thyroid gland in addition to infections is targeted by the body’s confused immune system. The use of cells known as antibodies causes the thyroid gland to release more thyroid hormone. These antibodies may also damage the muscles that support the eyes, causing the eyes to expand. Autoimmune hyperthyroidism is another name for Graves’ disease.
- Excessive use of thyroid hormone medicines can cause hyperthyroidism. Children who use thyroid hormone therapy to treat low thyroid problems run the risk of taking too much of the drug and developing hyperthyroidism.
- Thyroiditis is a condition that makes the thyroid gland expand and release too many hormones into the blood. This condition typically has a self-limiting nature, meaning it will go away on its own. Thyroiditis can be caused by autoimmune diseases like Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, infections of the thyroid gland, or injury to the thyroid gland.
- Neonatal Graves disease is the most common form of hyperthyroidism in babies, despite being rare. When a woman has Graves’ disease, her antibodies pass through the placenta and turn on the thyroid gland in the unborn child.
Hyperthyroidism can also arise from an iodine overload from eating. Iodine is necessary for the production of thyroid hormones, which is why the World Health Organization suggests using iodized salt. However, iodine can be ingested in excess. This could be brought on by eating too much iodine-rich food, such seaweed. Iodine supplements are the primary cause of most cases of iodine excess.
- Thyroid nodules, which are growths in the thyroid gland, may produce too many hormones. There could be a nodule on your child’s neck, in which case we might suggest a biopsy. In this procedure, a microscopic examination of a small portion of thyroid tissue to check for malignant cells is performed. Although the majority of thyroid nodules are benign, there are surgical options available when they are not.